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PostgreSQL (vapor/postgresql) is a pure Swift PostgreSQL client built on top of SwiftNIO.

The higher-level, Fluent ORM guide is located at Fluent → Getting Started. Using just the PostgreSQL package directly for your project may be a good idea if any of the following are true:

  • You have an existing DB with non-standard structure.
  • You rely heavily on custom or complex SQL queries.
  • You just plain don't like ORMs.

PostgreSQL core extends DatabaseKit which provides some conveniences like connection pooling and integrations with Vapor's Services architecture.


Even if you do choose to use Fluent PostgreSQL, all of the features of PostgreSQL core will be available to you.

Getting Started

Let's take a look at how you can get started using PostgreSQL core.


The first step to using PostgreSQL core is adding it as a dependency to your project in your SPM package manifest file.

// swift-tools-version:4.0
import PackageDescription

let package = Package(
    name: "MyApp",
    dependencies: [
        /// Any other dependencies ...

        // 🐘 Non-blocking, event-driven Swift client for PostgreSQL.
        .package(url: "", from: "1.0.0"),
    targets: [
        .target(name: "App", dependencies: ["PostgreSQL", ...]),
        .target(name: "Run", dependencies: ["App"]),
        .testTarget(name: "AppTests", dependencies: ["App"]),

Don't forget to add the module as a dependency in the targets array. Once you have added the dependency, regenerate your Xcode project with the following command:

vapor xcode


The next step is to configure the database in configure.swift.

import PostgreSQL

/// Register providers first
try services.register(PostgreSQLProvider())

Registering the provider will add all of the services required for PostgreSQL to work properly. It also includes a default database config struct that uses standard credentials.

Customizing Config

You can of course override the default configuration provided by PostgreSQLProvider if you'd like.

To configure your database manually, register a DatabasesConfig struct to your services.

// Configure a PostgreSQL database
let postgresql = try PostgreSQLDatabase(config: PostgreSQLDatabaseConfig(...))

/// Register the configured PostgreSQL database to the database config.
var databases = DatabasesConfig()
databases.add(database: postgresql, as: .psql)

See PostgreSQLDatabase and PostgreSQLDatabaseConfig for more information.

PostgreSQL's default database identifier is .psql. You can create a custom identifier if you want by extending DatabaseIdentifier.


Now that the database is configured, you can make your first query.

struct PostgreSQLVersion: Codable {
    let version: String

router.get("sql") { req in
    return req.withPooledConnection(to: .psql) { conn in
        return conn.raw("SELECT version()")
            .all(decoding: PostgreSQLVersion.self)
    }.map { rows in
        return rows[0].version

Visiting this route should display your PostgreSQL version.

Here we are making use database connection pooling. You can learn more about creating connections in DatabaseKit → Getting Started.

Learn more about building queries in SQL → Getting Started.

Visit PostgreSQL's API docs for detailed information about all available types and methods.