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Asymmetric Cryptography

Asymmetric cryptography (also called public-key cryptography) is a cryptographic system that uses multiple keys—usually a "public" and "private" key.

Read more about public-key cryptography on Wikipedia.


A popular asymmetric cryptography algorithm is RSA. RSA has two key types: public and private.

RSA can create signatures from any data using a private key.

let privateKey: String = ...
let signature = try RSA.SHA512.sign("vapor", key: .private(pem: privateKey))


Only private keys can create signatures.

These signatures can be verified against the same data later using either the public or private key.

let publicKey: String = ...
try RSA.SHA512.verify(signature, signs: "vapor", key: .public(pem: publicKey)) // true

If RSA verifies that a signature matches input data for a public key, you can be sure that whoever generated that signature had access to that key's private key.


RSA supports any of the Crypto module's DigestAlgorithm.

let privateKey: String = ...
let signature512 = try RSA.SHA512.sign("vapor", key: .private(pem: privateKey))
let signature256 = try RSA.SHA256.sign("vapor", key: .private(pem: privateKey))